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Abstracts, Volume 39

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Volume 39 / Issue 1

Who’s Listening? - Editor's Page

Libby V. Morris

Non-Alumni Advisory Board Volunteers

Judy Nagai and Kim Nehls

Abstract: Advisory boards typically offer guidance, support, social, and financial capital to academic units within colleges and universities.  They are generally comprised of prominent volunteers from the community and appropriate industries or businesses.  The results of this exploratory study found that non-alumni advisory board volunteers developed emotional connections and pride in serving the institution similar to alumni. The connections led most of the volunteers who participated in this study to have a high level of engagement with the institution that was meaningful to them and resulted in their desire to continue as volunteers, even without having earned a degree from the institution.

Curricular Integration as Innovation: Faculty Insights on Barriers to Institutionalizing Change

Shannon N. Davis and Shannon K. Jacobsen

Abstract: In the burgeoning literature on infusing undergraduate research and creative activities into the curriculum of research-intensive institutions, few studies have examined the perspectives of the faculty mentors who provide the individualized opportunities for students.  Based on focus group data from 50 faculty mentors, we document faculty perceptions of the challenges to infusing undergraduate student scholarship across the curriculum.  We conclude with practical suggestions for other institutions seeking to implement innovative change initiatives in general and to broaden opportunities for undergraduate research and creative activities in particular.

Why Wait? The Influence of Academic Self-Regulation, Intrinsic Motivation, and Statistics Anxiety on Procrastination in Online Statistics

Karee Dunn

Abstract: Online graduate education programs are expanding rapidly. Many of these programs require a statistics course, resulting in an increasing need for online statistics courses. The study reported here grew from experiences teaching online, graduate statistics courses. In seeking answers on how to improve this class, I discovered that research has yet to explore teaching and learning in online statistics courses. The purpose of the study was to ameliorate this gap in the literature by examining the influence of self-regulation, intrinsic motivation, and statistics anxiety on passive procrastination. The set of independent variables explained nearly thirty percent of the variance.

A Federal Higher Education iPad Mobile Learning Initiative: Triangulation of Data to Determine Early Effectiveness

Jace Hargis, Cathy Cavanaugh, Tayeb Kamali, and Melissa Soto

Abstract: This article presents faculty perceptions of the first month of iPad deployment in a national college system and a case study describing the integration of mobile learning devices in one college, interpreted within the framework of a SWOT analysis. We include a brief history of the implementation; description of the three-tier structure of infrastructure, pedagogy, and content; faculty perceptions; and pedagogy interview findings. We collected data using 1) case study interviews, 2) a faculty dispositional survey, and 3) iPad lead faculty. Overall, the large-scale deployment of iPad mobile learning devices was associated with high faculty engagement in formal and informal professional development activities and adoption of an active student-centered pedagogy. In addition, the program stimulated innovative approaches to technical challenges; and it spurred development and evaluation of new digital content.

Redefining Information Literacy to Prepare Students for the 21st Century Workforce

Robert Monge and Erica Frisicaro-Pawlovski

Abstract: Information literacy instruction—a set of skills taught in order to identify and find the information needed to solve a problem—traditionally follows a formalized academic model.  It assumes information skills can be applied universally and learned individually.  However, this approach does not correspond to the social and specialized learning practices in the workforce.  This article presents an argument for faculty and librarians to collaborate and redefine information literacy guidelines using specific disciplinary requirements while incorporating non-formal and informal workplace learning practices.  This approach would better prepare students for the social and collaborative learning required in a 21st century workforce environment.

The Rise and Fall of a Required Interdisciplinary Course: Lessons Learned

Barbara E. Goodman and Vaughn E. Huckfeldt

Abstract: In order to meet the South Dakota Board of Regents requirements for an upper level writing course with global perspective for all graduates, the administration at the University of South Dakota established an interdisciplinary course to be taken by all majors. Two faculty members from different disciplines were assigned to teach each section with support from an English Ph.D. student. The institution built an active learning classroom for 18 teams of 6 students taught simultaneously in each section. However, after only four semesters, the administration canceled the course.  In this article, we offer an analysis of this situation and suggest lessons learned, both positive and negative, during the development, implementation, and redesign of this interdisciplinary course.

Volume 39 / Issue 2

Beginning and Capping Undergraduate Education - Editor's Page

Libby V. Morris

FAST-Future Academic Scholars in Teaching: A High-Engagement Development Program for Future STEM Faculty

Claudia E. Vergara, Henry Campa, III, Kendra S. Cheruvelil, Diane Ebert-May, Cori Fata-Hartley, Kevin Johnston, Mark Urban-Lurain

Abstract: Doctoral granting institutions prepare future faculty members for academic positions at institutions of higher education across the nation. Growing concerns about whether these institutions are adequately preparing students to meet the demands of a changing academic environment have prompted several reform efforts. We describe a professional development model designed to prepare the future faculty to integrate the multiple components of academic careers. The program emphasizes the study and application of effective teaching practices centered on student learning and assessment and expectations for faculty careers. We describe the impact of the program on its participants.

Do Diversity Experiences Help College Students Become More Civically Minded? Applying Banks’ Multicultural Education Framework

Darnell Cole and Ji Zhou

Abstract: In this longitudinal, single institution study, we utilized Banks’ five dimensions of multicultural education framework to examine whether and to what extent involvement in various diversity experiences helps students become more civically minded. The findings suggest that greater involvement in service learning, multicultural courses, interracial interactions, racial awareness workshops, student-faculty interactions, and campus racial harmony significantly and positively contributed to civic mindedness. Asian students, when compared to their White counterparts, were more likely to report growth in civic mindedness after four years of college. We discuss scholarly and practical implications of the study results.

Seven Years After the Call: Students’ and Graduates’ Perceptions of the Re-envisioned Ed.D.

Ron Zambo, Debby Zambo, Ray R. Buss, Jill A. Perry, and Tiffany R. Williams

Abstract: Given continued confusion about the, universities affiliated with the Carnegie Project on the Education Doctorate (CPED) have re-envisioned it using a set of guiding principles and design features. In this study, we investigated why students and graduates chose to pursue the Ed.D., what and how they learned, how they viewed themselves, and whether they perceived their programs to be aligned with CPED’s principles. Data were collected from 296 participants at 14 CPED institutions using an online survey. Results indicated respondents agreed  that their programs were aligned with CPED principles, helped them meet their professional and personal goals, and developed them as scholarly practitioners.

An Exploratory Investigation of the Research Self-Efficacy, Interest in Research, and Research Knowledge of Ph.D. in Education Students

Glenn W. Lambie, B. Grant Hayes, Catherine Griffith, Dodie Limberg, & Patrick R. Mullen

Abstract: Faculty members in higher education are called to be effective researchers; however, there is limited research examining the research development of Ph.D. students. The cross-sectional, correlational investigation we report here examined levels of research self-efficacy, interest in research, and research knowledge of Ph.D. in education students (N = 67). Higher levels of research self-efficacy scores were predictive of higher interest in research and research knowledge. In addition, the students who engaged in research activities, including publishing manuscripts, scored higher in research self-efficacy than those not engaged in the publication process. Implications for doctoral student educators and higher education are discussed.

Changing Schools of Education through Grassroots Faculty-led Change

Jill Alexa Perry

Abstract: In this article I report on the application of the lens of Rogers’ (1995) change agent roles and Kezar and Lester’s (2011) adaptation of tempered radicals in order to understand the leadership roles assumed by three individual faculty members located at three distinct schools of education. These faculty leaders utilized the concepts and principles of the Carnegie Project on the Education Doctorate (CPED) to lead redesigns of their Ed.D. programs. Qualitative data were gathered during a larger study on institutional change. Findings contribute to understanding grassroots leadership and how it works in collaboration with top-down authorities.

What They Learned: Using Multimedia to Engage Undergraduates in Research

Kristine Artello

Abstract: Today’s employers seek high levels of creativity, communication, and critical thinking, which are considered essential skills in the workplace.  Engaging undergraduate students in critical thinking is especially challenging in introductory courses.  The advent of YouTube, inexpensive video cameras, and easy-to-use video editors provides opportunities to increase students’ skill levels in these areas.  In this article I explain the assignment of producing a public service announcement that integrates research, collaborative learning, and creativity into an introductory survey course; and I discuss the support necessary for students’ success.  Their products demonstrate increased levels of media literacy, creativity, and critical thinking skills.

Volume 39 / Issue 3

The Arts and What If? - Editor's Page

Libby V. Morris

Assessing Long-Term Effects of Inquiry-Based Learning: A Case Study from College Mathematics

Marina Kogan and Sandra L. Laursen

Abstract: As student-centered approaches to teaching and learning are more widely applied, researchers must assess the outcomes of these interventions across a range of courses and institutions. As an example of such assessment, this study examined the impact of inquiry-based learning (IBL) in college mathematics on undergraduates’ subsequent grades and course selection at two institutions.  Insight is gained upon disaggregating results by course type (IBL vs. non-IBL), by gender, and by prior mathematics achievement level.  In particular, the impact of IBL on previously low-achieving students’ grades is sizable and persistent.  The authors offer some methodological advice to guide future such studies.

Organizational Trust in Times of Challenge: The Impact on Faculty and Administrators

Cherron R. Hoppes and Karri A. Holley

Abstract: Higher education institutions have faced increased social, cultural, economic, and political challenges in recent decades. In this study we used the socio-cultural construct of trust to understand how organizational responses to external challenges impact the relationship between faculty members and administrators. Using extensive interviews, observations, and document analysis from a small, private college, we considered how intentionality, a safe campus climate, expertise, participatory governance, and transparency impact stakeholders’ perceptions of organizational trust.

Intentional Teaching, Intentional Scholarship: Applying Backward Design Principles in a Faculty Writing Group

Kathryn E. Linder, Frank Rudy Cooper, Elizabeth M. McKenzie, Monika Raesch, and Patricia A. Reeve

Abstract: Backward design is a course creation method that encourages teachers to identify their goals for student understanding and measurable objectives for learning from the outset.  In this article we explore the application of backward design to the production of scholarly articles.  Specifically, we report on a writing group program that encourages group goal setting and the acquisition of skills required to achieve these goals.  We discuss the relationships between backward design principles and the development of scholarship for publication as well as offer suggestions of best practices for academic writers.

A Community of Practice Model for Introducing Mobile Tablets to University Faculty

Michelle Drouin, Lesa Rae Vartanian, Samantha Birk

Abstract: We examined the effectiveness of a community of practice (CoP) model for introducing tablets to 139 faculty members at a higher education institution.  Using a CoP within a systems model, we used large- and small-group mentorship to foster collaboration among faculty members. Most faculty members agreed that the project was well organized and activities were useful. In terms of measurable outcomes, many participants had developed plans for or completed scholarly activities related to tablets. Our findings support the use of CoP models to integrate technology within higher education. Additionally, they support such integrations as proof of concept for large, whole-campus technology integrations.

Veteran Ally: Practical Strategies for Closing the Military-Civilian Gap on Campus

Nicholas J. Osborne

Abstract: Since the Post-9/11 GI Bill was enacted in 2009, student veteran populations have nearly doubled while services that support their transition to higher education have dramatically increased. Despite a surge in resources, however, institutions are deficient in training faculty and staff about veterans’ issues, consequently leaving student veterans susceptible to inaccurate perceptions about their service and wellbeing. In an effort to provide an inclusive environment for service members, this article discusses findings from two focus groups and 14 interviews with student veterans. Recommendations for training faculty and staff and enhancing the visibility of veterans’ issues through Veteran Ally training and student veteran discussion panels are discussed.

Volume 39 / Issue 4

The Mixed Generation Classroom: What Does Research Tell Us? - Editor's Page

Libby V. Morris

Cultivating Institutional Transformation and Sustainable STEM Diversity in Higher Education through Integrative Faculty Development

Joseph A. Whittaker and Beronda L. Montgomery

Abstract: An urgent need to broaden diversity and support the preparation of students and faculty members along proactive pathways to research and success can be facilitated by targeted faculty development and formalization of policies built on institutional commitment, engagement, and accountability. Involvement of the faculty in building institutional diversity will recognize equity-building initiatives as valid forms of faculty scholarship and as one way to address the growing public problem of educational disparities in the STEM fields. We propose systemic, institutional transformation centered on a foundation of faculty engagement, empowerment, and reward that reflects intentionality and accountability for developing diverse institutional communities

Conceptualizing Openness to Diversity and Challenge: Its Relation to College Experiences, Achievement, and Retention

Nicholas A. Bowman

Abstract: Openness to diversity and challenge (ODC) constitutes an integral outcome of the undergraduate experience. However, ODC may also serve as a form of generalized openness to experience; if so, then it should be positively related to a host of college experiences as well as student success. The study reported here explored this possibility within a longitudinal sample of 8,475 first-year students at 46 institutions. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that ODC is positively and significantly related to several broad measures of college experiences and first-year GPA, and it is also a marginally significant predictor of first-to-second year retention.

Does Becoming a Member of the Football Bowl Subdivision Increase Institutional Attractiveness to Potential Students

Willis A. Jones

Abstract: In recent years, a number of colleges and universities have made the decision to pursue membership in the NCAA’s Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) with the idea that participating in higher profile intercollegiate football can help attract students to their institution.  This belief, however, has not been empirically examined.   Using difference-in-differences estimation, this study examined freshmen application trends at three colleges and universities (Florida Atlantic University, Florida International University, and Western Kentucky University) which moved from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the FBS in the mid-2000s relative to similar FCS institutions which did not move to the FBS.  Findings showed that moving to the FBS had a positive, statistically significant correlation with freshmen applications at the two institutions located in Florida but not at Western Kentucky University.

Encouraging College Student Active Engagement in Learning: The Influence of Response Methods

Michelle L. Barr

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the use of two student response methods within selected college lecture halls. Kinesiology majors from three universities were asked to respond to questions during two consecutive lectures, one using “clickers” and the other using hand-raising. Participation and comprehension rates were statistically significantly different following the use of the different response methods.  Participant survey responses revealed insight into student participation, question presentation, perceived cognitive engagement, and overall learning in traditional lecture settings using the response methods.

Communication, Communication, Communication! Growth through Laboratory Instructing

Jamie J. Peterson, Samantha DeAngelo, Nancy Mack, Claudia Thompson, Jennifer Cooper, and Arturo Sesma, Jr.

Abstract: The study included an assessment of doctoral students, graduate faculty, and curriculum considerations to determine the degree of infusion of research integrity and responsible conduct of research (RCR) principles within a Doctor of Education program. Study results showedsubstantial increases in doctoral candidates’ knowledge levels of RCR, and faculty members serving as dissertation committee chairs reported greater understanding of RCR tenets than did non-dissertation chairs.  The study also revealed a strong presence of research within the Ed. D. core curriculum.

Building Authenticity in Social Media Tools to Recruit Postsecondary Students

Jean Kelso Sandlin and Edlyn Vallejo Peña

Abstract: An increasing number of institutions utilize social media tools, including student-written blogs, on their admission websites in an effort to enhance authenticity in their recruitment marketing materials. This study offers a framework for understanding what contributes to prospective college students’ perceptions of social media authenticity and how their perceptions shape expectations of the college experience. The results of the study are based on qualitative data comprising 16 in-depth interviews, 165 journal entries, and an eight-member focus group interview with college-bound students. Prospective college students perceived student-written blogs to be authentic when student bloggers disclosed personal details and feelings about campus life, even when the topic of the blog was contrived to focus on admission and college-related activities. Recognizing a blog as authentic occurred through the process of internalizing the experience described in the blog post and identifying with the blogger.

Volume 39 / Issue 5

Honor and Honesty in the Academy—A Wonderful Example - Editor's Page

Libby V. Morris

Responsible Conduct of Research Assessment of Doctor of Education Candidates, Graduate Faculty, and Curriculum Considerations

Carla J. Thompson

Abstract: The study included an assessment of doctoral students, graduate faculty, and curriculum considerations to determine the degree of infusion of research integrity and responsible conduct of Research (RCR) principles within a Doctor of Education program.  Study results showed substantial increases in doctoral candidates’ knowledge levels of RCR, and faculty members serving as dissertation committee chairs reported greater understanding of RCR tenets than did non-dissertation chairs.  The study also revealed a strong presence of research within the Ed.D. core curriculum.

Understanding Campus and Community Relationships through Marriage and Family Metaphors: A Town-Gown Typology

Stephen M. Gavazzi, Michael Fox, and Jeff Martin

Abstract: In this article we argue that the scholarship on marriages and families provides invaluable insights into town-gown relationships.  Marital typologies are used to generate insights into what happens between campus and community relationships over time, and a line of family scholarship provides some additional illumination about the ways in which institutions and municipalities can strike a healthy balance between meeting their idiosyncratic needs and pursuing shared goals and objectives.  We use four case examples to illustrate the application of the typological structure, and these examples are followed by a discussion of implications for leadership on both sides of the town-gown relationship

An Innovative Near-Peer Mentoring Model for Undergraduate and Secondary Students: STEM Focus

Laura S. Tenenbaum, Margery K. Anderson, Marti Jett, Debra L. Yourick

Abstract: This study examined a novel mentoring model, near-peer mentorship, that supports the development of mentee and mentor, incorporates established principles of mentoring, and offers unique opportunities to integrate research and teaching in a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) internship. Using qualitative methods, this model was examined from the perspectives of near-peer mentors and student mentees during a science education internship at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Results revealed that this mentorship model contributed to personal, educational, and professional growth for near-peer mentors and increased the interest and engagement of students studying STEM. We discuss implications, limitations, and future directions.

Ensuring Effective Student Support in Higher Education Alleged Plagiarism Cases

Craig Baird and Patricia Dooey

Abstract: Plagiarism and other forms of academic misconduct are matters of great concern at all levels of study worldwide. This is especially so for students in higher education institutions, where higher degrees and publications are key focus activities. Ready access to internet based resources assist academic writing practices. However, the unintentional, or sometimes deliberate, lack of acknowledgment of intellectual property ownership by some students results in plagiarism allegations.  In this article we explain how the Business School at Curtin University, Western Australia, currently handles plagiarism accusations; and we propose a model for making the University’s approach more transparent, supportive, and educative for students.  We recommend this model to others.

Distributive Justice in Higher Education: Perceptions of Administrators

Shawn M. Fitzgerald, Daniel Mahony, Fashaad Crawford, and Hope Bradley Hnat

Abstract: For the study we report here we used the theoretical framework of organizational justice to examine academic administrator’s perceptions of resource distribution decisions. We asked deans, school directors, and department chairs in one midwestern state about their perceptions of the fairness and likelihood of use of various distribution principles in scenarios involving distributions of compensation to faculty and resources to schools/departments. Differences based on Carnegie classification and current position were examined. Overall, we found that participants perceived compensating faculty members and allocating resources to departments based on the quality of teaching and impact on students was most fair, but they believed factors such as research productivity and funding secured were more likely to be used. While there were no differences based on current position, there were differences based on Carnegie classification with the research universities indicating greater preference for and likelihood of using research principles and non-research institutions indicating greater likelihood of using equality.

When the Ink Runs Dry: Implications for Theory and Practice When Educators Stop Keeping Reflective Journals

Janet E. Dyment and Timothy S. O’Connell

Abstract: In this article we report on a study that explored educators’ past and current use of reflective journals and if and how these practices influence their pedagogical use of such journals with their own students.  We conducted semi-structured interviews with 8 educators who had kept reflective journals in the past but were no longer doing so; however, they require their own students to keep journals.  Several interesting themes emerged including the temporal relevance of using reflective journals in professional practice, the significance of alternative methods of reflection, implications of the “teaching as you’ve been taught” phenomenon, and the importance of lower levels of reflection in development as a professional.

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